Your colleagues report that, on average, “Certain parts of the brain long thought to be involved with basketball playing are much larger in the group of basketball players. Not only does basketball playing run in families, but even these people’s brains are different. Those parts responsible for an activity get larger over time, and there are specific parts of the brain that are more utilized in basketball playing. Now, as a scientist, you will not lie about this fact, if asked (since you will not be), but neither will you go out of your way to offer the truth. The truth, after all, would put an end to the worldwide media blitz accompanying the announcement of your findings. Gene Linkage Studies: “Associated With” Does Not Mean “Caused By” Now, for the last phase, you find a small number of families of basketball players and compare them to some families of nonplayers.
As we have seen, there is no evidence that homosexuality is simply “genetic”–and none of the research itself claims there is
You have a hunch that of the innumerable genes likely to be associated with basketball playing (those for height, athleticism, and quick reflexes, for example), some will be located on the x-chromosome. You won’t say these genes cause basketball playing because such a claim would be scientifically insupportable, but the public thinks “caused by” and “associated with” are synonymous. After a few false starts, sure enough, you find what you are looking for: among the basketball-playing families, one particular cluster of genes is found more commonly. With a Little Help from the Media Now, it happens that you have some sympathizers at National People’s Radio, and they were long ago quietly informed of your research. They want people to come around to certain beliefs, too.
So, as soon as your work hits the press, they are on the air: “Researchers are hot on the trail of the Basketball Gene. In an article to be published tomorrow in Sports Science. Two weeks later, there it is again, on the cover of the major national newsweekly: “Basketball Gene? It is simple: of course basketball playing is associated with certain genes; of course it is heritable. But it is those intermediate physiological traitsmuscle strength, speed, agility, reflex speed, height, etc. Those are the traits that make it likely one will be able to, and will want to, play basketball. In the case of homosexuality, the inherited traits that are more common https://datingranking.net/local-hookup/jacksonville/ among male homosexuals might include a greater than average tendency to anxiety, shyness, sensitivity, intelligence, and aesthetic abilities.
From the American Psychological Association”[M]any scientists share the view that sexual orientation is shaped for most people at an early age through complex interactions of biological, psychological and social factors
But this is speculation. To date, researchers have not yet sought to identify these factors with scientific rigor. What the majority of respected scientists now believe is that homosexuality is attributable to a combination of psychological, social, and biological factors. From “Gay Brain” Researcher Simon LeVay”At this point, the most widely held opinion [on causation of homosexuality] is that multiple factors play a role. From Dennis McFadden, University of Texas neuroscientist:”Any human behavior is going to be the result of complex intermingling of genetics and environment.
From Sociologist Steven Goldberg”I know of no one in the field who argues that homosexuality can be explained without reference to environmental factors. Only the press and certain researchers do, when speaking in sound bites to the public. Endnotes Mann, C. Genes and behavior. Science (1994). Billings, P. Technology Review, July, p. Mann, C.